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P.A. Inamdar & Ors. v. State of Maharashtra

Read this case to learn about the Supreme Court's stance on reservation and quota in private institutions and regulations and setting up of committees in Islamic Academy.

CITATION- (2005) 6 SCC 537

COURT- Supreme Court of India

JUDGES/CORAM- Chief Justice R.C. Kumar, Justice G.P. Mathur, Justice Tarun Chatterjee, Justice P.K. Balasubramanyan and Justice R. Lahoti


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Summary of court decision and judgment




This case discusses the merits and the further considerations taken by the constitutional bench of the Supreme Court in the matter of T.M.A. Pai Foundation v. State of Karnataka (2002).


The facts are: This was a case decided by the Supreme Court's Second Judicial University, and the dispute was about setting up unsupported academic institutional assignments and holding exams for admission to relevant universities. Interpretation of the 5th Judges Panel in the case of the Islamic Academy of Education v. Karnataka, (2003) 6 SCC 697, T.M.A. About the decision of the 11th Judges Panel in the case of the Pai Foundation v. Karnataka, (2002) 8 SCC481 is also suspicious. Given the nature of the controversy in question in this case, the Second Judges' Meeting decided that the issues raised should be referred to a larger meeting room for final decision.

As an meantime degree, for the educational 12 months 2004-05, for the State of Karnataka, it changed into prima facie held in this situation that the seats ought to be crammed up through the establishments worried withinside the ratio of 50:50 merely as a transient degree and with out prejudice to the contentions of the events for the cause of the very last disposal. Likewise, Interim orders had been issued for sure faculties in State of Maharashtra.


The essential problems withinside the case had been:

Is there a essential proper to installation academic establishments?

Does Unni Krishnan require reconsideration?

In case of personal establishments, can there be authorities rules and, if so, to what volume?

Summary of courtroom docket choice and judgment

The putting in of the committees in Islamic Academy, the volume of quotas and nation reservation in non-public establishments, and the law of expenses changed into yet again challenged earlier than the Supreme Court and a bigger bench of 7 judges changed into installation in PA Inamdar v. State of Maharashtra,(2005) 6 SCC 537,with a purpose to make clear the ratio of the judgment in TMA Pai. The Court in Inamdar held:

a. The coverage of reservation can not be enforced through the nation nor can a quota or percent of admissions be carved out to be appropriated through the nation.

b. A not unusualplace front take a look at may be held through a set of further located establishments furnished that it's far fair, transparent, and non-exploitative. The nation may also itself or via an agency, set up for containing such exams and college students may be admitted on the premise of advantage out of those not unusualplace front exams. However, the nation may also most effective take over if the 3 standards referred to above aren't satisfied.

c. Every organization is unfastened to plan its personal rate shape situation to the trouble that there may be no profiteering and no capitation rate may be charged at once or indirectly, or in any form. NRI seats are permissible to the volume of 15 in keeping with cent in all establishments.

d. The committees for tracking admission system and figuring out rate shape beneath neath the judgment of Islamic Academy are permissible as regulatory measures.

In the absence of any principal regulation, it's far for the principal and nation governments to pop out with a detailed, well-thought-out regulation at the situation.


In my view, the regulation laid down through TMA Pai and PA Inamdar has balanced the pursuits of personal establishments with the ones of college students and additionally crammed gaps in coverage. However, there are tremendous and more and more more entrenched troubles withinside the implementation of those judgments. Ineffectual law, reputable corruption, and insufficient nation potential to supervise the functioning of personal establishments has caused the proliferation of faculties which have been installation totally to earn earnings and take advantage of the demand-deliver hole through charging exorbitant capitation expenses. This is mainly so in clinical training wherein hundreds of college students compete for a completely constrained variety of seats.

The Court ought to additionally be cautious that extensively said rights do now no longer emerge as dogma and save you any law withinside the hobby of college students. For instance, the Medical Council of India`s strive at engaging in a National Eligibility cum Entrance Test for admission to MBBS and BDS Courses and additionally PG clinical courses, which changed into aimed toward streamlining and supplying a unmarried window front system for all clinical courses, changed into struck down through the Supreme Court in Christian Medical College v. Union of India, (2014) 2 SCC 305 at the floor that keeping one of these take a look at violates the rights of personal establishments beneathneath Article 19(1)(g) and beneathneath Article 30 of the Constitution.

The judgment in PA Inamdar supposed to restrict rules for the advantage of hundreds of college students. Such an interpretation of the judgment is opposite to the spirit of PA Inamdar. In fact, non-public establishments` objection to a unmarried window take a look at at the floor that their proper to confess is violated displays perverse motivations and the abuse of the extensive rights conferred on them. Regulations aimed toward extra transparency and advantage in admissions might make it tougher for establishments to exercising discretion in methods designed by and large to reinforce profits. This case is likewise evidence that Indian academic establishments and the felony framework they're ruled through should evolve in addition earlier than a way of life of self-law, practiced in a few evolved nations, may be adopted.


It took the Supreme Court overmany years to return back to phrases with the coverage of the authorities spotting the want for non-public establishments. PA Inamdar has now held the sphere for ten years now. The principles of autonomy and liberalization that had been first said in 1948 withinside the University Education Committee file seem to have sooner or later been integrated into regulation via this judgment. Many states have applied the judgment in Inamdar through enacting a appropriate regulation. For instance, in Karnataka, consensual agreements are entered into beneathneath the Karnataka Professional Educational Institutions (Regulation of Admissions and Fixation of Fee) (Special Provisions) Act, 2006, which offer for seat sharing and rate fixation in clinical and engineering faculties withinside the nation.

This article is written by Sankalp Mirani of MNLU Mumbai.

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1989 AIR 2039, 1989 SCR (3) 997 BENCH: MISRA RANGNATH OZA, G.L. (J) PETITIONER: Parmanand Katara, Human Rights Activist RESPONDENT: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Indian Medical Council, India


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