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CYBER TERRORISM

INTRODUCTION

Terrorism is a term that practically everyone in the globe is familiar with. The use of violent means to attain political goals, particularly by attacking civilians is the trademark of terrorism. In spite of that terrorism can be imposed on countries and organizations not just through weapons and bones but also through digital platforms and the internet, as the world has witnessed it in recent years.

Given humanity’s reliance on the net and statistics technology, these attacks can cause untold damage; these attacks are known as cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism groups are coordinated and sophisticated in their attacks; cyber terrorism represents a great risk to the government and natural infrastructure. [1] Barry Collin coined the term cyber terrorism in the late 1980s to address the convergence of cyberspace and terrorism. [2] Cyber terrorism is generally sensitive and one of the most recognized problems in the world, but it is still undervalued and neglected in India. Our societies increasing reliance on data technology has created a replacement sort of vulnerability, giving terrorists the possibility to approach targets that might rather be totally unassailable, akin to as: - national defense systems and control systems of air traffic, the most technologically advanced a country, the more vulnerable it becomes to cyber attacks on its infrastructure.

The earth shattering development of the cyber world presented the dangers of cyber psychological warfare. The cyber assault has an inclination of portrayal of deadly, non-deadly, mental prosperity, public confidence and political perspectives[3]. By and large, it is considered as digital psychological warfare influences just the public safety framework. In any case, contaminating it additionally influences their mind and cognizance. The cyber fear based oppressor extended development of digital assaults, which has significantly expanded in recent years. It has caused mass obliteration and harm to atomic offices and basic order. What's more, control framework. The cyber specialists are working to fortify increasingly more ability assaults over government framework, safeguard sites, monetary and banking framework and generally significant atomic offices.[4]


The internet is running in veins of current advanced framework, business and other fundamental administrations[5]. Cyber Security is one of significant perspectives, the disappointment of which went into the fight field for cyber assaults and cyber psychological warfare. The cyber wrongdoer or E violation are currently turned into the truth of life which incorporates the different sorts and methods of digital violations like site hacking, ID or secret phrase hacking, information burglary or administration disavowal to different frameworks.[6] The modern cyber secret activities are too factor answerable for the development of “cyber attack” over the others data framework for the procurement of ‘higher touchy information’.

What is Cyber Terrorism?

The phase cyber terrorism imply to the employment of the net so as to perform execute violent actions that either threaten or lead to sever bodily damage or perhaps loss of life. Cyber terrorism acts typically aim to attain political or philosophic benefits by means that of intimidations, worry and threat.[7] Further, to qualify as cyber terrorism, an assault should bring about viciousness against people or property, or if nothing else cause sufficient damage to produce dread. Assaults that lead to death or substantial injury, blasts, or extreme monetary misfortune would be models, genuine assaults against basic foundations could be demonstrations of cyber terrorism, contingent upon their effect. Assaults that upset unimportant administrations or that are essentially an exorbitant aggravation would not.

Recognise cyber terrorism and “hacktivism”, a term instituted by researchers to depict the marriage of hacking with political activism. (Hacking is here comprehended to mean exercises directed on the web and secretively that look to uncover, control, or in any case exploit weaknesses in PC working frameworks and other programming. In contrast to hacktivists, programmers tend not to have political plans.) hacktivists have four fundamental weapons available to them: virtual bars; email assaults; hacking and PC break ins; and PC Infections and worms.[8] In some cases, the meaning of cyber terrorism extends to cover the fear monger exercises like purposeful interruption of PC networks through utilizing different apparatuses like worms, infections, Phishing exercises and different other malignant programming and programming scripts.

The definition and description of cyber terrorism is exceptionally setting reliant and inclined to change. [9] A definition that diminishes cyber terrorism to act, just comprise the actual property of individual neglects to catch the part of cyber terrorism that likewise expects to acquire influence through taking or retaining data. [10] At that point when cyber terrorists break or take data, penetrate the frameworks of state run administrations and enormous scope associations, they don’t straight forwardly make actual mischief a property or an individual yet the disturbance brought about by such information breaks can be incredibly, lustful.[11]

Then again, a few specialists contend that unlawful methods of acquiring and retaining in the manner we portrayed above ought to be considered as simple hacking rather than cyber terrorism since such practices don’t cause actual mischief or dread.

However, to manage issues brought about by programmes and cyber terrorists, we need to concoct a functioning definition, in any event. We can just characterize cyber terrorism as assaults on advanced resources or potentially carefully put away data of an association that is accomplished for philosophical inspirations, rather than financial inspirations.[12]

Cyber Terrorism is likewise termed as- electronic terrorism, electronic jihad, information warfare or cyber warfare. [13] The essential target of cyber assault is hacking, for the most part to fulfill the self image of programmers of fear. Some of the time it appears to be too comparative or overlapping with one another like digital assault and digital psychological oppression warfare. The goal of cyber psychological oppression is to create the sensation of fear in the psyche of the digital casualties. Digital illegal intimidation causing danger to most weak point, which cover physical and virtual world.[14]


Cyber Terrorism is an alluring choice for terrorists for quite sometime:

First, it is cheaper than traditional terrorist methods. All that the terrorist needs is a personal computer and an online connection.

Terrorists do not need to buy weapons such as guns and explosives; instead, they can create and deliver computer viruses through a telephone line, a cable, or a wireless connection. • Second, cyber terrorism is more anonymous than traditional terrorist methods. Like many Internet surfers, terrorists use online nicknames—”screen names”—or log on to a website as an unidentified “guest user,” making it very hard for security agencies and police forces to track down the terrorists’ real identity. And in cyberspace there are no physical barriers such as checkpoints to navigate, no borders to cross, and no customs agents to outsmart.

• Third, the variety and number of targets are enormous. The cyber terrorist could target the computers and computer networks of governments, individuals, public utilities, private airlines, and so forth. The sheer number and complexity of potential targets guarantee that terrorists can find weaknesses and vulnerabilities to exploit. Several studies have shown that critical infrastructures, such as electric power grids and emergency services, are vulnerable to a cyber terrorist attack because the infrastructures and the computer systems that run them are highly complex, making it effectively impossible to eliminate all weaknesses.


• Fourth, cyber terrorism can be conducted remotely, a feature that is especially appealing to terrorists. Cyber terrorism requires less physical training, psychological investment, risk of mortality, and travel than conventional forms of terrorism, making it easier for terrorist organizations to recruit and retain followers. • Fifth, as the I LOVE YOU virus showed, cyber terrorism has the potential to affect directly a larger number of people than traditional terrorist methods, thereby generating greater media coverage, which is ultimately what terrorists want.


Cyber Threats in India


With India cutting a specialty for itself in the IT area, reliance on innovation is, likewise expanding. Notwithstanding, there are two things that put India beside the players in the major associations, similar to the United States and China, and that is plan and thickness. With Indians utilizing the web for every one of their necessities, going from shopping to banking, considering putting away information, digital wrongdoings have additionally expanded in relation to utilization. [15] A portion of the Cyber security challenges in India are as per the following:

● Absence of consistency in gadgets utilized for web access: With shifting pay bunches in India, not every person can manage the cost of costly telephones. In the US, Apple has more 44% pieces of the pie. Be that as it may, in India the iphones with their higher security standards are utilized by less than 1% of versatile clients. The broadening hole between the security presented by the very good quality iphones and cheaper mobiles make it extremely difficult for lawful and specialized norms to be set for information insurance by the controllers.[16] ● Absence of public level engineering for cyber security: Basic foundation is claimed by private areas, and the military have their own fire fighting offices. Anyway there is no public safety engineering that binds together the endeavors of this idea of any danger and tackles them viably. The prime minister’s office has made a situation towards this reason yet there is far to go before India has the essential design set up.[17]

● Absence of detachment: In contrast to nations or states, in the internet there is no limit, subsequently making the military, advanced resources of ONGC, banking capacities, and so forth defenseless against digital assaults from anyplace. [18] This could bring about security breaks at a public level, causing deficiency of cash, property or lives. To react to potential dangers on the country’s most valuable assets, there is a requirement for an actually prepared multi-office association that can put together its choices with respect to strategy inputs and a sound technique. ● Absence of mindfulness: As there is no national administrative approach set up for network protection there is an absence of mindfulness at both organization level just as individual level.

Home-grown netizens can shield and be shielded from the digital assaults provided that there is a directed and managed legitimate structure. [19] India saw a flood in cyber attacks in the midst of a quick reception of computerized benefits the nation over after the lockdown forced in the wake of Coronavirus. [20] Almost 1.16 million instances of cyber attacks were accounted for in 2020, up almost multiple times from 2019 and a bigger number of than multiple times contrasted with 2016, as per government information introduced in the Parliament on Tuesday. On a normal, 3,137 network safety related issues were accounted for consistently during the year.[21]

"According to the data answered to and followed by the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), 3,94,499 and 11,58,208 network safety episodes have been seen during 2019 and 2020, individually," the home service informed Parliament in an answer. Around 115,000 digital assaults were accounted for consistently between September-December, adding up to around 460,000 in these four months, as indicated by true information. Last September, the public authority had said that 696,938 cyber attacks were accounted for in the months between January and August. CERT-In has enrolled an enormous flood in network protection dangers in the course of recent years.

There were 53,117 instances of digital assaults in the country in 2017. This had risen to 208,456 out of 2018 and 394,499 out of 2019. Exploration firms and specialists said cases are probably going to increment in 2021 and all areas, including fabricating, administrations, instruction, and medical services, may see all the more such assaults. [22] Government has gone to a few lengths to upgrade network safety frameworks, the home service said. CERT-In has likewise given "alarms and warnings in regards to digital dangers and weaknesses and countermeasures to secure PCs and organizations consistently", it said


The public authority has given rules for boss data security officials with respect to their vital jobs and responsibilities regarding getting applications and foundation, and consistency. It has additionally ordered customary digital protection reviews and counterfeit drills. [23] The National Cyber Coordination Center (NCCC) has begun to create situational attention to existing and potential digital protection dangers. Stage I of the program is as of now functional, the service said. With expansion in web and cell phone use, there is an ascent in the quantity of network protection episodes in the nation, just as all around the world. Proactive following by CERT-In, including its Cyber Swachhta Kendra and NCCC, and improved network safety mindfulness," the service of hardware and data innovation had told the Lok Sabha in September. [24]

How terrorist use techtechnology as a weapon

How fear mongers can utilize PC innovation to threaten or constrain a non military personnel populace and along these lines sabotage a general public's capacity to support inside requests.

Theoretically, its utilization for this reason falls into three classifications (I) Weapon of mass annihilation; (ii) Weapon of mass interruption; and (iii) Weapon of mass disturbance. [25]



Weapon of Mass Annihilation

This is a calculated choice, however not a genuine chance. The idea that PC innovation can be a weapon of mass obliteration depends on a misguided reason: the idea that PCs, alone, can be utilized to cause the sort of unsettling massacre the world saw on 9/11 or in Madrid on 11/3.

Computers, accordingly, can't incur actual harm for people or property; that is the territory of certifiable executes of death and annihilation. PCs can be utilized to get under way powers that produce actual harm. Rather than hacking a civil waste management framework for retribution, cyber terrorists could debilitate the frameworks that control a thermal energy station and cause a blast like the one that happened at the Chernobyl plant in 1986. 26By asserting liability regarding the disaster, the cyber terrorists could take advantage of the subsequent disease, demise and radioactive pollution to sabotage residents' confidence in their administration's capacity to ensure them by keeping control.

This is a reasonable illegal intimidation situation; however it's anything but a digital psychological warfare situation. While PC innovation would be utilized to trigger the blast, the casualties would review it as an atomic disaster, not as a PC fiasco. Under weapons of mass destruction situations, PC innovation assumes a coincidental part in the commission of a fear based oppressor act; here the PC serves simply as a detonator. To portray this situation as cyber terrorism is just about as improper as depicting the 1998 U.S. consulate bombings did by Al-Qaeda as automotive terrorism since vehicles were utilized to convey the bombs to the objective destinations.

Weapon of Mass Interruption

This is both a theoretical and a practical chance. Here, PC innovation plays a focal, critical job in the commission of a fear based oppressor act: a psychological militant demonstration that varies in fundamental ways from this present reality of illegal intimidation to which we are acclimated. PC innovation is utilized to control a non military personnel populace mentally; the mental control sabotages non military personnel assurance by subverting residents' confidence in the adequacy of their administration. Contingent upon the kind of control included, it can likewise bring about the curse of individual injury, passing and property annihilation.


Weapon of Mass Disturbance

In utilizing PC innovation as weapon of mass interruption, psychological oppressors will probably sabotage a non military personnel people's confidence in the solidness and unwavering quality of foundation parts like mass travel, electrical and other force supplies, correspondences, monetary organizations and fundamental administrations, for example, medical care.

Both the weapon-of- mass-interruption and weapon-of-mass-interruption choices target non military personnel' confidence in fundamental parts of their general public27. They contrast, in any case, in how PC innovation is utilized to consume regular citizen trust in cultural foundation and organizations. At the point when PC innovation is utilized as a weapon of mass interruption, fear mongers dispatch a mental assault; they will probably sabotage regular folks' trust in at least one of the frameworks they depend upon for fundamental labor and products. They achieve this by causing residents to accept a framework has been compromised and is done working adequately. The fear based oppressors don't really weaken the working of the framework; they will likely incur mental, not foundational, harm.

At the point when PC innovation is utilized as a weapon of mass disruption, fear mongers' objective is the curse of fundamental harm on at least one objective framework.28 This rendition of cyber terrorism is nearer to the situations that occasionally show up in the well known media – situations in which, say, cyber terrorists shut down the working of an electrical matrix or the frameworks providing flammable gas or petrol to a specific people. Like the weapon-of-mass-interruption elective, this situation is an applied and a reasonable chance. Here, fear mongers use PC innovation in a manner that is undifferentiated from – however less annihilating than – their use of certifiable weapons of mass obliteration.

Different Government Approaches

With cyber terrorism research reaching a stopping point almost immediately; a few thoughts of digital psychological warfare were in any case gotten by states and offices the same.